1. What Are Samples and Why Do We Need Them?
  2. Why the United States Still Has a Census
  3. It Pays to Take Samples and to Stick With Them
  4. Sampling Frames
  5. Simple Random Sample
  6. Systematic Random Sampling
    1. Periodicity and Systematic Sampling
    2. Sampling from a Telephone Book
  7. Stratified Sampling
    1. Disproportionate Sampling
    2. Weighting Results
  8. Cluster Sampling and Complex Sampling Designs
  9. Probability Proportionate to Size
    1. PPS Samples in the Field
    2. Maximizing Between-Group Variance: The Wichita Study
  10. How Big Should a Sample Be?

Examples and Illustrations

Why did the Clinton administration, congress and the Supreme Court spend a great deal of time arguing about samples during the planning stages for the 2000 census?


Least You Should Know

After working with this chapter you should be able to… …give three reasons why samples are taken.
... explain the difference between cultural data and individual data
…name the seven types of sample and say enough about each to distinguish it from the others.
…distinguish "sample statistic" from "population parameter.
…explain what the phrase "always get or take a census" means.
…define the concept "representative" so that you won't misuse it in a sentence

Food for Thought


Concepts, terms, vocabulary

age cohorts (150)
between-group variance (157)
biased sample
cluster sampling (152)
cultural data (141)
disproportionate stratified random sampling (150)
experience sampling (151)
individual data (141)
mall-intercept survey (156)
of error
maximizing the between-group variance (149)

minimizing the within-group variance (149)
panel study (144)
periodicity problem (147)
population heterogeneity
population parameters (142)
probability proportionate to size/PPS (154)
probability sampling (142)
proportionate stratified random sample (150)
sample accuracy (160)
sample precision (160)

sample statistics/parameter estimators (160)
sampling design (149)
sampling frame (144-145)
sampling interval (147)
selection effect
simple random sample (145)
stratified random sampling (148-149)
street-intercept survey (156)
systematic random sampling (146-147)
within-group variance (157)

M i l l s    H o m e    P a g e    *    M i l l s    S o c i o l o g y    *    S O C 9 1    *    D a n    R y a n